Below is a list of journal publications in the past several years.  For a complete list of Prof. Papautsky's 200+ peer-reviewed journal and conference publications, please click here to download his vitae.


  • N. Nivedita, N. Garg, A. P. Lee and I. Papautsky, “A high throughput microfluidic platform for size-selective enrichment of cell populations in tissue and blood samples,” Analyst, 2017.

We demonstrate integration of two microfluidic components — a spiral inertial microfluidic (iMF) device and a lateral cavity acoustic transducer (LCAT) device — for selective isolation and enrichment of particles and cells in blood. The integrated system takes advantage of the sorting capability of the spiral iMF and the enrichment capability of LCAT to yield a significant enhancement in performance.  We demonstrate that this platform is capable of removing >90% of RBCs and enriching target cells with high purity even for samples with the lowest of concentrations (enrichment  44,000x for 1 particle/mL concentration).

  • C. A. Rusinek, W. Kang, K. Nahan, M. Hawkins, C. Quartermaine, A. Stastny, A. Bange, I. Papautsky, and W. R. Heineman, “Determination of manganese in whole blood by cathodic stripping voltammetry with indium tin oxide,” Electroanalysis, 2017, DOI: 10.1002/elan.201700137 [pdf]

We  report that a bare, uncoated-ITO electrode can be used for accurate sample analysis for the determination of Mn2+ in bovine whole blood. Though ITO is not typically used for such measurements, we have already shown the material’s superior

performance in Mn2+ CSV over other electrode materials such as glassy carbon, boron-doped diamond, and mercury.

  • N. Nivedita, P. Ligrani, and I. Papautsky, “Dean flow dynamics in low-aspect ratio spiral microchannels,” Scientific Reports, 2017, 7, 44072, doi:10.1038/srep44072 [pdf]

In this work, we provide a systematic experimental investigation of the fluid flow dynamics in low aspect ratio rectangular spiral microchannels which are widely used as highly efficient cell-sorters or micromixers. For the first time we demonstrate the presence of multiple pairs of secondary flow vortices (secondary Dean vortices) in these microchannels at high Re. We also introduce a non-dimensional parameter, critical Dean number (DeC), to represent a threshold for the onset of these secondary Dean vortices. This work offers insight into the phenomenon of development of secondary flows in spiral microchannels and improves the understanding of the concept of particle focusing in spiral devices.

  • W. Kang, C. Rusinek, A. Bange, E. Haynes, W. R. Heineman, and I. Papautsky, “Determination of manganese using cathodic stripping voltammetry on a platinum thin-film electrode”, Electroanalysis, 2017, 29, 686–695, doi:10.1002/elan.201600679. [pdf]

We use a microscale electrochemical sensor with Pt thin film electrodes for CSV analysis of Mn(II) and demonstrate significantly improved LOD, precision, and accuracy.  Little has been reported on Mn CSV using thin film Pt electrodes.  The sensor was optimized and calibrated for Mn determination in pH 5.5, 0.2 M acetate buffer and provided a calculated LOD of 16.3 nM (0.9 ppb), a 20× improvement over our previous results with Pd.  Determinations of Mn in real-world water samples show 92.5% agreement with ICP-MS measurements.

  • X. Wang, H. Gao, N. Dindic, N. Kaval, and I. Papautsky, “A low-cost, plug-and-play inertial microfluidic helical capillary device for high-throughput flow cytometry”, Biomicrofluidics, 2017, 11, 014107, doi:10.1063/1.4974903 [pdf]

We use a glass capillary to enable 3D sheathless inertial focusing of microparticles for high-throughput flow cytometry counting of microbeads and cells. Our device uses a commercially available capillary tube with square cross section. The fabrication is a plug-and-play process that takes <10 min and costs <$15, without the use of any sophisticated tools.

  • W. Kang, X. Pei, C. A. Rusinek, A. Bange, E. N. Haynes, W. R. Heineman, and I. Papautsky, “Determination of lead with a copper-based electrochemical sensor,” Anal. Chem., 2017, 89 (6), pp 3345–3352, doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03894. [pdf]

This work demonstrates determination of lead (Pb) in surface water samples using a low-cost copper (Cu)-based electrochemical sensor. For anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) of Pb, our sensor shows 21 nM (4.4 ppb) limit of detection, resistance to interfering metals such as cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn), and stable response in natural water samples with minimum sample pretreatment.

  • R. C. Murdock, K. M. Gallegos, J. A. Hagen, N. Kelley-Loughnane, A. Weiss, and I. Papautsky, “Development of a point-of-care diagnostic for influenza detection with antiviral treatment effectiveness indication,” Lab Chip, 2017, 17, 332-332, doi:10.1039/C6LC01074A.[pdf]

Currently, diagnosis of influenza is performed either through tedious polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or through rapid antigen detection assays. In this work, a novel, point-of-care style μPAD (microfluidic paper-based diagnostic) for influenza has been developed with the ability to determine antiviral susceptibility of the strain for treatment decision. The assay exploits the enzymatic activity of surface proteins present on all influenza strains, and potential false positive responses can be mitigated.



  • X. Wang, X. Yang, and I. Papautsky, “An integrated inertial microfluidic vortex sorter for tunable sorting and purification of cells,” Technology, 2016, 4(2), doi:10.1142/S2339547816400112 [pdf]

We introduce an inertial microfluidic device based on our vortex sorting platform for continuous size-based double sorting and purification of the larger target cells from the smaller background cells. With properly designed fluidic resistance network and optimized flow conditions, we demonstrated continuous sorting of spiked human cancer stem-like cells from human blood with >90% efficiency and >1,500× enhanced purity, as well as removal of red blood cells with ~99.97% efficiency. We envision this integrated vortex-aided sorter can serve as a viable tool for size-based sorting of large target cells from complex cellular samples.

  • M. A. Kandadai, P. Mukherjee, H. Shekhar, G. J. Shaw, I. Papautsky, C. K. Holland, “Microfluidic manufacture of rt-PA -loaded echogenic liposomes”, Biomedical Microdevices, 2016, 18, 48 [pdf]

We present development of echogenic liposomes (ELIP), loaded with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and

microbubbles that act as cavitation nuclei, for ultrasound-mediated thrombolysis.

  • X. Wang, C. Liedert, R. Liedert, and I. Papautsky, “Disposable, roll-to-roll hot embossed inertial microfluidic device for size-based sorting of microbeads and cells,” Lab Chip, 2016, 16, 1821-1830 [pdf]

We present a low-cost and disposable inertial microfluidic device fabricated with roll-to-roll hot embossing for size-based sorting of microparticles and cells.

  • C. Rusinek, A. Bange, M. Warren, W. Kang, K. Nahan, I. Papautsky, W. Heineman, “Trace detection of manganese using cathodic stripping voltammetry with an indium tin oxide working electrode coated with a charge selective polymer film,” Anal. Chem., 2016, 88 (8), 4221 [pdf]

We demonstrate manganese (Mn) cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) using an indium tin oxide (ITO) working electrode both bare and coated with a sulfonated charge selective polymer film SSEBS). ITO itself proved to be an excellent electrode material for Mn CSV, achieving a calculated detection limit of 5 nM (0.3 ppb) with a deposition time of 3 min. Coating the ITO with the SSEBS polymer was found to increase the sensitivity and lower the detection limit to 1 nM (0.06 ppb). This simple, sensitive analytical method using ITO and SSEBS-ITO could be applied to a number of electroactive transition metals detectable by CSV.

  • S. L. SelvaKumar, X. Wang, J. Hagen, R. Naik, I. Papautsky and J. Heikenfeld, “Label free nano-aptasensor for interleukin-6 in biofluids,”
    Anal. Methods, 2016, 8, 3440-3444. [pdf]

A sub-pM limit of detection label-free sensor is presented for interleukin-6 based on impedimetric measurement of a gold nanoparticle, aptamer-modified electrode in artificial sweat.


  • C. A. Rusinek, A. Bange, I. Papautsky, and W. R. Heineman, “Cloud point extraction for electroanalysis: anodic stripping voltammetry of cadmium,” Anal. Chem., 2015, 87(12), 6133–6140. [pdf]

We demonstrate the use of cloud point extraction (CPE) for electroanalysis using the determination of cadmium (Cd2+) by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Rather than using the chelating agents which are commonly used in CPE to form a hydrophobic, extractable metal complex, we used iodide and sulfuric acid to neutralize the charge on Cd2+ to form an extractable ion pair. The a offers good selectivity for Cd2+ as no interferences were observed from other heavy metal ions.

  • X. Wang, M. Zandi, C.-C. Ho, N. Kaval, and I. Papautsky, “Single stream inertial focusing in a straight microchannel,” Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 1812-1821. [pdf]

We demonstrate an inertial microfluidic chip with simple, planar channel geometry for single-position focusing of microbeads and cells in sheathless flow cytometry.

  • X. Wang and I. Papautsky, “Size-based microfluidic multimodal microparticle sorter,” Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 1350-1359. [pdf]

We demonstrate an inertial microfluidic chip that achieves continuous multimodal separation of microparticle mixtures with high resolution and high cutoff tenability for preparation of complex microparticle samples.

  • D. Rose, M. Ratterman, D. Griffin, L. Hou, N. Kelley-Loughnane, R. Naik, J. Hagen, I. Papautsky, J. Heikenfeld, "Adhesive RFID sensor patch for monitoring of sweat electrolytes," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 2015. 62(6), 1457-1465. [pdf]

An adhesive radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smartphone app with 96% accuracy at 50 mM Na+ (in vitro tests).

  • A. Banerjee, J.-H. Noh, Y. Liu, P. Rack, I. Papautsky, “Programmable electrowetting with channels and droplets,” Micromachines, 2015, 6(2), 172-185. [pdf]

We demonstrate continuous and discrete functions in a digital microfluidic platform in a programmed manner. Parallel channels are formed and programmed to split into multiple droplets, while droplets are programmed to be split from one channel, transferred and merged into another channel. This approach combines the continuous and digital paradigms of microfluidics, showing the potential for a wider range of microfluidic functions.


  • W. Kang, X. Pei, A. Bange, W. R. Heineman, I. Papautsky, “Copper-based electrochemical sensor with palladium electrode for cathodic stripping voltammetry of manganese,” Anal. Chem., 2014, 86(24), 12070-12077. [pdf]

In this work, we report on the development of a palladium-based, microfabricated point-of-care electrochemical sensor for the determination of manganese using square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry.

  • J. Zhou, P. V. Giridhar, S. Kasper, and I. Papautsky, “Modulation of rotation-induced lift force for cell filtration in a low aspect ratio microchannel”, Biomicrofluidics, 2014, 8, 044112. [pdf]

In this work, we report a simple, filter-free, microfluidic platform based on hydrodynamic inertial migration. Our approach builds on the concept of two-stage inertial migration which permits precise prediction of microparticle position within the microchannel. Our design manipulates equilibrium positions of larger microparticles by modulating rotation-induced lift force in a low aspect ratio microchannel.  Here, we demonstrate filtration of microparticles with extreme efficiency (>99%).

  • X. Pei, W. Kang, W. Yue, A. Bange, W. R. Heineman, and I. Papautsky, “Disposable copper-based electrochemical sensor for anodic stripping voltammetry”, Anal. Chem., 2014, 86(10), 4893-4900. [pdf]

In this work, we report the first copper-based point-of-care sensor for electrochemical measurements demonstrated by zinc determination in blood serum.

  • A. Schultz, I. Papautsky, and J. Heikenfeld, “Investigation of Laplace barriers for arrayed electrowetting lab-on-a-chip,” Langmuir, 2014, 30, 5349-5356. [pdf]

This work confirms the potential benefits of Laplace barriers for lab-on-a-chip and also reveals the unique challenges and operation requirements for Laplace barriers in lab-on-a-chip applications.

  • M. Ratterman, L. Shen, D. Klotzkin, I. Papautsky, “Carbon dioxide luminescent sensor based on a CMOS image array,” Sensors & Actuators B: Chemical, 2014, 198, 1-6. [pdf]

We describe an optical carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor based on luminescent quenching of hydroxy-pyrenetrisulfonic acid (HPTS). By using an image sensor typically found in consumer products, a compact, low-cost luminescence-based CO2 sensor was successfully demonstrated with performance comparable to that of the commercial sensors.

  • Y. Liu, A. Banerjee, and I. Papautsky, “Precise nanoliter droplet generation and volume control in electrowetting microchannels,” Microfluidics Nanofluidics, 2014, 17(2), 295-303. [pdf]

We demonstrated a simple approach of reproducible droplet dispensing in an electrowetting chip by combining the continuous and digital functionalities. An electrowetting virtual channel was formed in the chip as a replenishable fluid source and droplets were dispensed from the channel. This approach allows for precise dispensing of a large number of nanoscale droplets in an automated fashion.

  • X. Pei, W. Kang, A. Bange, W. R. Heineman and I. Papautsky, “Improving reproducibility of lab-on-a-chip sensor with bismuth working electrode for measuring Zn in serum by stripping voltammetry,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 2014, 161(2), B3160-B3166. [pdf]

This work reports on the continuing development of a lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor for determination of zinc in blood serum using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry.



  • R. Murdock, L. Shen, D. Griffin, N. Kelley-Loughnane, I. Papautsky, J. Hagen, “Optimization of a paper-based ELISA for a human performance biomarker,” Anal. Chem, 2013, 85(23), 11634-11642. [pdf]
  • W. Kang, X. Pei, A. Bange, W. R. Heineman and I. Papautsky, “Lab-on-a-chip sensor with evaporated bismuth film electrode for anodic stripping voltammetry of Zn,” Electroanalysis, 2013, 25(12), 2586-2594. [pdf]
  • J. Zhou, S. Kasper and I. Papautsky, “Enhanced size-dependent trapping of particles using microvortices,” Microfluidics Nanofluidics, 2013, 15(5), 611-623. [pdf]
  • W. Yue, A. Bange, B. L. Riehl, J. M. Johnson, I. Papautsky and W. R. Heineman, “The application of nafion metal catalyst free carbon nanotube modified gold electrode: voltammetric bovine zinc detection,” Electroanalysis, 2013, 25(10), 2259–2267.[pdf]
  • N. Nivedita and I. Papautsky, “Continuous separation of blood cells in spiral microfluidic devices,” Biomicrofluidics, 2013, 7, 054101. [pdf]
  • X. Wang, J. Zhou, and I. Papautsky, “Vortex-aided inertial microfluidic device for continuous particle separation with high size-selectivity, efficiency, and purity,” Biomicrofluidics, 2013, 7, 044119. [pdf]
  • V. N. Shanov, M. Schulz, T. D. Mantei, F. J. Boerio, L. Smith, S. Iyer, I. Papautsky, D. D. Dionysiou, D. Shi, and J. Bickle, “Integration of Nanoscale Science and Technology into Undergraduate Curricula,” Journal of Nano Education, 2013, 5, 1-7.
  • J. Zhou, P.V. Giridhar, S. Kasper and I. Papautsky, “Modulation of aspect ratio for complete separation in an inertial microfluidic channel,” Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 1919-1929. [pdf]
  • L. Hou, J. Hagen, X. Wang, I. Papautsky, R. Naik, N. Kelley-Loughnane and J. Heikenfeld, “Artificial Microfluidic Skin for In Vitro Perspiration Simulation and Testing,” Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 1868–1875.
  • R. Dixit, L. Shen, M. Ratterman, I. Papautsky and D. Klotzkin, “Simultaneous Single Detector Measurement of Multiple Fluorescent Sources,” IEEE Sensors Journal, 2013, 13, 1965-1971. [pdf]
  • X. Wang, J. A. Hagen and I. Papautsky, “Paper pump for passive programmable transport,” Biomicrofluidics, 2013, 7, 014107 [pdf]
  • J. Zhou and I. Papautsky, “Fundamentals of Inertial Focusing in Microchannels,” Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 1121-1132. [pdf]
  • P. Jothimuthu, R. A. Wilson, J. Herren, X. Pei, W. Kang, R. Daniels, H. Wong, F. Beyette, W. R. Heineman and I. Papautsky, “Zinc Detection in Serum by Anodic Stripping Voltametry on Microfabricated Bismuth Electrodes,” Electroanalysis, 2013, 25, 401-407. [pdf]




  • A. Banerjee, Y. Liu, J. Heikenfeld and I. Papautsky, “Deterministic splitting of fluid volumes in electrowetting microfluidics” Lab Chip, 2012, 12, 5138-5141.
  • L. Shen, J. Hagen, I. Papautsky, “Point-of-Care Colorimetric Detection with a Smartphone,” Lab Chip, 2012, 12, 4240–4243.
  • W. Yue, A. Bange, B. Reihl, J. M. Johnson, I. Papautsky, W. R. Heineman, “Manganese detection with a metal catalyst free carbon nanotube electrode: anodic vs. cathodic stripping voltammetry,” Electroanalysis, 2012, 24, 1909-1914.
  • A. Banerjee, E. Kreit, Y. Liu, J. Heikenfeld and I. Papautsky, “Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels,” Lab Chip, 2012, 12, 758-764.




  • W.-H. Choi, W. H. Lee, and I. Papautsky, “Multi-analyte needle-type sensor for in situ measurement of pH and phosphate,” J. Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS (JM3), 2011, 10, 020501.
  • P. Jothimuthu, R. A. Wilson, J. Herren, E. Haynes, W. R. Heineman, and I. Papautsky, “Lab-on-a-chip sensor for detection of highly electronegative heavy metals by anodic stripping voltammetry,” Biomed. Microdev., 2011, 13, 695-703.
  • L. Shen, M. Ratterman, D. Klotzkin, and I. Papautsky, “A CMOS optical detection system for point-of-care chemical sensors,” Sensors Actuators B, 2011, 155, 430-435.
  • L. Shen, M. Ratterman, D. Klotzkin, and I. Papautsky, “Use of a low-cost CMOS detector and cross-polarization signal isolation for oxygen sensing,” IEEE Sensors J., 2011, 11, 1359-1360.
  • W. H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, W.-H. Choi, A. A. Hosni, I. Papautsky, and P. L Bishop, "Needle-type environmental microsensors: design, construction and uses of microelectrodes and multi-analyte MEMS sensor arrays," Meas. Sci. Technol., 2011, 22, 042001.




  • E. Kreit, M. Dhindsa, S. Yang, K. Zhou, I. Papautsky, and J. Heikenfeld, “Porous electrowetting barriers for digital flow thresholding and virtual fluid confinement,” Langmuir, 2010, 26, 18550-18556.
  • A. A. S. Bhagat, S. S. Kuntaegowdanahalli, N. Kaval, C. J. Seliskar, and I. Papautsky, “Inertial microfluidics for sheath-less high-throughput flow cytometry,” Biomed. Microdev., 2010, 12, 187-195.
  • M. Dhindsa, J. Heikenfeld, S. Kwon, J. Park, P. Rack, I. Papautsky, “Virtual electrowetting channels: electronic liquid transport with continuous channel functionality,” Lab Chip, 2010, 10, 832-836.
  • K. A Comandur, A. A. S. Bhagat, S. Dasgupta, I. Papautsky, and R. K. Banerjee, “Transport and reaction of nano-liter samples in a microfluidic reactor using electroosmotic flow,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 2010, 20, 035017.
  • A. Banerjee, Y. Shuai, R. Dixit, I. Papautsky, and D. Klotzkin, “Concentration dependence of fluorescence signal in a microfluidic fluorescence detector,” J. Lumin., 2010, 130, 1095-1100.




  • S. S. Kuntaegowdanahalli, A. A. S. Bhagat, and I. Papautsky, “Dean force coupled inertial migration based particle separation in spiral microchannels,” Lab Chip, 2009, 9, 2973-2980.
  • T.-S. Lim, J.-H. Lee, I. Papautsky, “Effects of Recess Dimensions on Performance of the Recessed Cathode Dissolved Oxygen Sensor,” Sensors Actuators B, 2009, 141, 50-57.
  • A. A. S. Bhagat, S. S. Kuntaegowdanahalli, and I. Papautsky, “Geometrically modulated inertial microfluidics for continuous particle filtration and extraction,” Microfluid. Nanofluid., 2009, 7, 217-226.
  • W. H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, P. L. Bishop, I. Papautsky, “Biological application of MEMS microelectrode array sensors for direct measurement of phosphate in the enhanced biological phosphorous removal process,” Water Environ. Res., 2009, 81, 748-754.
  • P. Jothimuthu, A. A. S. Bhagat, A. Carroll, G. Lin, J. Mack, and I. Papautsky, “Photodefinable PDMS thin films for microfabrication applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 2009, 19, 045024.
  • J.-H. Lee, W. H. Lee, P. L. Bishop, I. Papautsky, “Cobalt coated needle-type microelectrode array sensor for in situ monitoring of phosphate,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 2009, 19, 025022.




  • A. A. S. Bhagat, S. S. Kuntaegowdanahalli, and I. Papautsky, “Continuous particle separation in spiral microchannels using Dean flows and differential migration,” Lab Chip, 2008, 8, 1906-1914.
  • A. A. S. Bhagat, S. Kuntaegowdanahalli, and I. Papautsky, “Enhanced particle filtration in straight microchannels using shear-modulated inertial migration,” Physics of Fluids, 2008, 20, 101702.
  • A. A. S. Bhagat, and I. Papautsky, “Enhancing particle dispersion in a passive planar micromixer using rectangular obstacles,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 2008, 18, 085005.
  • S. Dasgupta, A. A. S. Bhagat, M. Horner, I. Papautsky, and R. K. Banerjee, “Effects of applied electric field and microchannel wetted perimeter on electroosmotic velocity,” Microfluid. Nanofluid., 2008, 5, 185-192.
  • A. Pais, A. Banerjee, D. Klotzkin, and I. Papautsky, “High-sensitivity, disposable lab-on-a-chip with thin-film organic electronics for fluorescence detection,” Lab Chip, 2008, 8, 794-800.
  • A. Banerjee, A. Pais, I. Papautsky, and D. Klotzkin, “A polarization isolation method for high-sensitivity, low cost on-chip fluorescence detection for microfluidic lab-on-a-chip,” IEEE Sensors Journal, 2008, 8(5), 621-627.
  • I. Papautsky and E. T. K. Peterson, “An introductory course to biomedical microsystems for undergraduates,” Biomed. Microdev., 2008, 10, 375-378.




  • J.-H. Lee, Y. Seo, T.-S. Lim, P. L. Bishop, and I. Papautsky, “MEMS needle-type sensor array for in situ measurements of dissolved oxygen and redox potential,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 2007, 41(22), 7857-7863.
  • J.-H. Lee, T.-S. Lim, Y. Seo, P. L. Bishop, and I. Papautsky, “Needle-type dissolved oxygen microelectrode array sensors for in situ measurements,” Sensors Actuators B, 2007, 128, 179-185.
  • A. A. S. Bhagat, P. Jothimuthu, and I. Papautsky, “Photodefinable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for rapid lab-on-a-chip prototyping,” Lab Chip, 2007, 7, 1192-1197.
  • A. A. S. Bhagat, E. T. K. Peterson, and I. Papautsky, “A passive planar micromixer with obstructions for mixing at low Reynolds numbers,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 2007, 17, 1017-1024.
  • G. Jing, A. Polaczyk, D. Oerther, and I. Papautsky, “Developing biochip for culture based detection of environmental mycobacteria,” Sensors Actuators B, 2007, 123, 614-629.
  • A. A. S. Bhagat, A. Pais, P. Jothimuthu, and I. Papautsky, “Re-usable quick-release interconnect for characterization of microfluidic systems,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 2007, 17, 42-49.
  • D. Klotzkin and I. Papautsky, “High-sensitivity integrated fluorescence analysis for microfluidic lab-on-a-chip,” SPIE News, 2007, DOI: 10.1117/2.1200705.0748



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